Peat (Turf).
Natural soil-former.

Peat (turf) as a soil-former

For many years our company works in the sphere of maintenance of ecological safety according to the requirements of Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia and Federal Service for Supervision of Natural Resource Usage of Russian Federation.

For localization of oil pouring and oil products We use peat as main sorbent for express absorbing and fixings both from a surface of waters and from a terrestrial surface of oil-fuel, oil, heating oil, landscape and shade gardening and other organic emission.

The peat - is not toxic, explosion-proof, does not render negative influence for environment, is applied for localization of water surface, further the peat possesses simplicity of ways of recycling. Considering the specificity of the countries of the Middle East we recommend you to create strategic stocks of peat. Term of its storage is not limited.

But for more economically effective utilization of peat in the countries of the Middle East We recommend to use it with sapropel for improvement of quality of soil, preparation of composts, nutritious bottom, mixes, peat mulching, and also for landscape and shade gardening and an accomplishment of territories.

Peat mixed with sapropel is natural organic soil-forner. For its wide use in agriculture, landscape and shade gardening there are number of solid reasons. Peat mixed with sapropel allows to provide effectively circulation of nutrients, keeps high fertility of soils, plays the major role in preservation of the environment, and also quality of products and the plants which have been grown up in the environment. Peat mixed with sapropel has many important qualities, which define its value for agriculture:

  • improves soil structure, its water-air properties. Being a basis of inhabitancy of any plant, provides optimum conditions of reception of production in all climatic zones;
  • it is rich on presence macro and microelements, and also contains unique components; possesses bactericidal properties, big gas-absorbent ability, it is equally necessary for any types of soil.

Any technology of deserts gardening demands presence of a considerable quantity of water and irrigating system, but unique property of peat, allows it as sponge to accumulate and save water which does not allow irrigation water to filter into sand or evaporate.

Peat use together with natural organic fertilizer such as sapropel transforms the lifeless earth into a fertile soil, which suitable for agricultural economic application.

Peat (it. Torf) - a firm combustible mineral, a version of caustobioliths, the predecessor of a genetic number of coals. It is formed as a result of adjournment at the bottom of bogs of the rests of the died off plants and their incomplete decomposition under the influence of activity of microorganisms in the conditions of the raised humidity and the complicated access of air.

Peat – is the first humic member of some fossil fuels. It is brown either black breed porous or dense, formed under water and without access of air from decayed and charred, but still clearly distinguished vegetative rests, moved with sand and clay. The carbon maintenance fluctuates from 45 to 66 %. Distinguish some versions on structure (paper, fibrous), by origin (wood, meadow) or under vegetative forms (moss, sphagnous, sedge, etc.).

Thus, peat definitions have various accents, however all of them converge in one: peat contains products of decomposition of fossils, is formed in the conditions of the raised humidity complicating access of oxygen.

Kinds and peat types

On type peat reserves are divided on:

  • The riding;
  • The transitive;
  • The mixed;
  • the low land.

On botanical structure establish the name of a kind of peat corresponding to it.

Kind of peat - conditionally primary taxonomic unit (i.e. having industrial interest - a layer capacity not less than 25 sm (length of a shuttle of a classical peat drill of a design of Instorfa of 1938) and the area not less 100х100. The kind conditionally reflects initial grouping of vegetation, and also somewhat its properties. In total now on classification MTI allocate 20 kinds of low land, 8 transitive and 12 riding peat. In the conditions of mainly atmospheric oligotrophic (poor) food plants of riding type grow. In conditions eutrophic (rich) mainly soil food the vegetation low land type is formed. Peat, deposed basically riding vegetation, are called as riding, low land (not less than 95 % of the rests eutrophic plants) – low lands. Transitive type concern peat, in which structure of 10-90 % of the rests of plants oligotrophic type, and other part - the rests of plants eutrophic type, and the peat, consisting completely from the rests of sphagnous mosses of mesotrophic type.

Except classification the kinds of peat there is a classification of kinds of the peat reserves, considering bedding character separate kinds of peat. In total 27 kinds of reserves are allocated. This classification has been developed in MTI for the purpose of allocation stratic sites of the peat reserves having one system of use.

There is the industrial classification of peat raw materials developed under command of Н.Т. Korol at institute Giprotorfrazvedka together with employees of Kalininsky peat institute (Instorf ТГТУ), for the purpose of reduction of laboratory researches of peat at investigation of peat reserves. The categories of peat raw materials unified under kinds of its use have been as a result established. On the basis of peat one corresponded to each kind of production not, and group of kinds of peat.

Density and porosity - the basic physical characteristics of peat defining a condition of a material and its behaviour in technological processes of peat manufacture. With reference to milling peat use an indicator of bulk density, its average value within types are: low land - 287 kg/m3, transitive - 279, riding - 297 kg/m3. Directly structure of peat is characterized by porosity and dispersion. The general porosity, the sizes of pore, a kinetic specific surface, active porosity, the maintenance of motionless water concern the basic characteristics of porous structure. Porosity and density define such size, as durability.

Peat – is an elastoplastic body and at deformation submits to main rules of rheology. The rheology of peat considers the processes connected with fluidity, plasticity and elasticity of peat systems. Depending on wetness peat systems can be liquideous structured and solid, conditional-plastic with prevalence of coagulation structures, or interlacing structures. The Rheological behaviour of peat is estimated by the equation of Shvedova-Bingama. The basic rheological peat characteristics are plastic viscosity, limiting pressure of shift, modules of deformations, the periods of a relaxation of pressure, etc. Rheological properties of peat are widely used at calculations of processes of a current, formation and peat drying.

Structural properties of peat and peat reserves are characterized by resistance to shift on a method of a rotary cut, resistance of a penetration, and also a corner of an internal friction. In practice often apply the basic rules of an external friction and peat sticking. For calculation of carrying over of heat and a moisture at peat drying it is important to know its basic thermal and physical characteristics.

The peat reserves in Russian Federation territory and all over the world

CountryArea of peat fields, mln. hаPercent to the country areaThe reserves of peat at 40% humidity bln. тPercent to world reserves
CIS and Baltic86,0*3,820040
Great Britain1,66,65,71,2
Czech Republic and Slovakia0,0340,260,50,1
Sri Lanka0,010,20,030,01
New Zealand0,2611,30,3
Other countries0,651

*– the area with average power of peat reserves more than 0,7 m.